Volt Inu

Smart Contract Audit Report

Audit Summary

Volt Inu Audit Report Volt Inu is a new BEP-20 token on the Binance Smart Chain that pays out static rewards to holders.

For this audit, we reviewed the project team's VOLT contract at 0x7db5af2B9624e1b3B4Bb69D6DeBd9aD1016A58Ac on the Binance Smart Chain Mainnet.

Audit Findings

Please ensure trust in the team prior to investing as they have substantial control in the ecosystem.
Date: April 6th, 2022.
Updated: April 11th, 2022 to reflect the contract's newly deployed mainnet address.

Finding #1 - VOLT - Informational (Resolved)

Description: Several functions are declared public, but are never called internally.
name, symbol, decimals, totalSupply, transfer, allowance, approve, transferFrom, increaseAllowance, decreaseAllowance, isExcludedFromReward, totalFees, minimumTokensBeforeSwapAmount, deliver, reflectionFromToken, excludeFromReward, isExcludedFromFee, excludeFromFee, includeInFee, setMigrationWallet, setSwapAndLiquifyEnabled, transferContractBalance
Recommendation: These functions should be declared external for additional gas savings on each call.
Resolution: The team has declared the above functions external.

Finding #2 - VOLT - Informational (Resolved)

Description: Several state variables can never be modified, but are not declared constant.
_lockTime, _previousOwner, _decimals, _name, _symbol _tTotal, botscantrade
Recommendation: These state variables should be declared constant for additional gas savings on each call.
Resolution: The team has declared the above state variables constant.

Finding #3 - VOLT - Informational (Resolved)

Description: The addLiquidity function is not used in the contract.
Recommendation: This function should either be removed or utilized in a way that fits the project team's intended functionality.
Resolution: The team has declared removed the addliquidity function from the contract.

Finding #4 - VOLT - Informational

Description: Although the SafeMath library is utilized, the contract is implemented with Solidity v0.8.x which has built-in overflow checks.
Recommendation: SafeMath could be safely removed to reduce contract size and deployment costs.

Contract Overview

  • The total supply of the token is set to 69 trillion $VOLT [69,000,000,000,000].
  • No mint or burn functions exist, though the circulating supply can be decreased by sending tokens to the 0x..dead address.
  • At the time of writing this report, there are 2,703 total token holders.
  • 96.92% of the total supply belongs to the EverMigrate contract. This contract was out of scope for the purpose of this audit.
  • The next five holders own a cumulative 0.441% of the total supply.

  • Trading must be enabled by the owner before all transfers can take place on the platform. Only the owner and the team's Migrator address can participate in transfers when trading is disabled.
  • Once trading is enabled, it can never be disabled.
  • The contract enforces a maximum transaction amount (determined by the owner) which imposes a limit to the number of tokens that can be transferred in a single transaction.
  • There is a Tax fee and a Liquidity fee on all transfers where neither the sender nor the recipient is excluded from fees.
  • The tokens collected through the Tax fee are removed from the circulating supply; This serves as a frictionless fee redistribution that automatically benefits all token holders at the time of each transaction.
  • The Liquidity fee charged during transfers is stored in the contract address. 66.67% of the tokens are swapped for BNB when the following conditions are met:
    • The automatic token swapping functionality is enabled by the team.
    • The threshold number of tokens (determined by the owner) in the contract address has been reached.
    • The contract is not currently performing an automatic liquidity add.
    • The caller is not initiating a buy transaction via Pancakeswap.
  • The received BNB is split between the team's Marketing wallet and Dev wallet.
  • The remaining 33.33% of the tokens in the contract are sent to the Burn address set by the team.
  • The contract utilizes the SafeMath library to protect against overflows/underflows.
  • The contract complies with the BEP-20 token standard.
Ownership Controls:
  • The owner can modify the Tax fee and Liquidity fee to any percentages at any time.
  • The owner can exclude and include accounts from transfer fees and reward distribution.
  • The owner can set the maximum transaction amount to any value at any time.
  • The owner can enable/disable the automatic token swapping functionality at any time.
  • The owner can update the threshold number of tokens that triggers the automatic token swapping functionality to any value at any time.
  • The owner can update the team's Marketing wallet, Dev wallet, Migrator address, and Burn address at any time.
  • The deployer can withdraw all of the BNB from the contract at any time.

External Threat Results

Vulnerability CategoryNotesResult
Arbitrary Storage WriteN/APASS
Arbitrary JumpN/APASS
Centralization of Control
  • The owner can modify the Tax fee and Liquidity fee to any percentages.
  • The owner can set the maximum transaction amount to any value.
WARNING
Compiler IssuesN/APASS
Delegate Call to Untrusted ContractN/APASS
Dependence on Predictable VariablesN/APASS
Ether/Token TheftN/APASS
Flash LoansN/APASS
Front RunningN/APASS
Improper EventsN/APASS
Improper Authorization SchemeN/APASS
Integer Over/UnderflowN/APASS
Logical IssuesN/APASS
Oracle IssuesN/APASS
Outdated Compiler VersionN/APASS
Race ConditionsN/APASS
ReentrancyN/APASS
Signature IssuesN/APASS
Unbounded LoopsN/APASS
Unused CodeN/APASS
Overall Contract Safety PASS

Inheritance Chart

Smart Contract Audit - Inheritance

Function Graph

Smart Contract Audit - Graph

Functions Overview


 ($) = payable function
 # = non-constant function
 
 Int = Internal
 Ext = External
 Pub = Public

 +  Context 
    - [Int] _msgSender
    - [Int] _msgData

 + [Int] IERC20 
    - [Ext] totalSupply
    - [Ext] balanceOf
    - [Ext] transfer #
    - [Ext] allowance
    - [Ext] approve #
    - [Ext] transferFrom #

 + [Lib] SafeMath 
    - [Int] add
    - [Int] sub
    - [Int] sub
    - [Int] mul
    - [Int] div
    - [Int] div
    - [Int] mod
    - [Int] mod

 + [Lib] Address 
    - [Int] isContract
    - [Int] sendValue #
    - [Int] functionCall #
    - [Int] functionCall #
    - [Int] functionCallWithValue #
    - [Int] functionCallWithValue #
    - [Prv] _functionCallWithValue #

 +  Ownable (Context)
    - [Int]  #
    - [Pub] owner
    - [Pub] creator
    - [Pub] renounceOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] transferOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] getUnlockTime
    - [Pub] getTime

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Factory 
    - [Ext] feeTo
    - [Ext] feeToSetter
    - [Ext] getPair
    - [Ext] allPairs
    - [Ext] allPairsLength
    - [Ext] createPair #
    - [Ext] setFeeTo #
    - [Ext] setFeeToSetter #

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Pair 
    - [Ext] name
    - [Ext] symbol
    - [Ext] decimals
    - [Ext] totalSupply
    - [Ext] balanceOf
    - [Ext] allowance
    - [Ext] approve #
    - [Ext] transfer #
    - [Ext] transferFrom #
    - [Ext] DOMAIN_SEPARATOR
    - [Ext] PERMIT_TYPEHASH
    - [Ext] nonces
    - [Ext] permit #
    - [Ext] MINIMUM_LIQUIDITY
    - [Ext] factory
    - [Ext] token0
    - [Ext] token1
    - [Ext] getReserves
    - [Ext] price0CumulativeLast
    - [Ext] price1CumulativeLast
    - [Ext] kLast
    - [Ext] burn #
    - [Ext] swap #
    - [Ext] skim #
    - [Ext] sync #
    - [Ext] initialize #

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Router01 
    - [Ext] factory
    - [Ext] WETH
    - [Ext] addLiquidity #
    - [Ext] addLiquidityETH ($)
    - [Ext] removeLiquidity #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETH #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityWithPermit #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETHWithPermit #
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForTokens #
    - [Ext] swapTokensForExactTokens #
    - [Ext] swapExactETHForTokens ($)
    - [Ext] swapTokensForExactETH #
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForETH #
    - [Ext] swapETHForExactTokens ($)
    - [Ext] quote
    - [Ext] getAmountOut
    - [Ext] getAmountIn
    - [Ext] getAmountsOut
    - [Ext] getAmountsIn

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Router02 (IUniswapV2Router01)
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETHWithPermitSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
    - [Ext] swapExactETHForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens ($)
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #

 +  VOLT (Context, IERC20, Ownable)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] name
    - [Pub] symbol
    - [Pub] decimals
    - [Pub] totalSupply
    - [Pub] balanceOf
    - [Pub] transfer #
    - [Pub] allowance
    - [Pub] approve #
    - [Pub] transferFrom #
    - [Pub] increaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] decreaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] isExcludedFromReward
    - [Pub] totalFees
    - [Pub] minimumTokensBeforeSwapAmount
    - [Pub] deliver #
    - [Pub] reflectionFromToken
    - [Pub] tokenFromReflection
    - [Pub] excludeFromReward #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] includeInReward #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Prv] _approve #
    - [Prv] _transfer #
    - [Prv] swapAndLiquify #
       - modifiers: lockTheSwap
    - [Prv] swapTokensForEth #
    - [Prv] addLiquidity #
    - [Prv] _tokenTransfer #
    - [Prv] _transferStandard #
    - [Prv] _transferToExcluded #
    - [Prv] _transferFromExcluded #
    - [Prv] _transferBothExcluded #
    - [Prv] _reflectFee #
    - [Prv] _getValues
    - [Prv] _getTValues
    - [Prv] _getRValues
    - [Prv] _getRate
    - [Prv] _getCurrentSupply
    - [Prv] _takeLiquidity #
    - [Prv] calculateTaxFee
    - [Prv] calculateLiquidityFee
    - [Prv] removeAllFee #
    - [Prv] restoreAllFee #
    - [Pub] isExcludedFromFee
    - [Pub] excludeFromFee #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] includeInFee #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setTaxFeePercent #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setLiquidityFeePercent #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setMaxTxAmount #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] allowtrading #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setMigrationWallet #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setNumTokensSellToAddToLiquidity #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setMarketingAddress #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setBurningAddress #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setDevAddress #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setSwapAndLiquifyEnabled #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] transferContractBalance #
       - modifiers: onlyCreator
    - [Prv] transferForMarketingETH #
    - [Ext]  ($)

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What is a Solidity Audit?

Typically, a smart contract audit is a comprehensive review process designed to discover logical errors, security vulnerabilities, and optimization opportunities within code. A Solidity Audit takes this a step further by verifying economic logic to ensure the stability of smart contracts and highlighting privileged functionality to create a report that is easy to understand for developers and community members alike.

How Do I Interpret the Findings?

Each of our Findings will be labeled with a Severity level. We always recommend the team resolve High, Medium, and Low severity findings prior to deploying the code to the mainnet. Here is a breakdown on what each Severity level means for the project:

  • High severity indicates that the issue puts a large number of users' funds at risk and has a high probability of exploitation, or the smart contract contains serious logical issues which can prevent the code from operating as intended.
  • Medium severity issues are those which place at least some users' funds at risk and has a medium to high probability of exploitation.
  • Low severity issues have a relatively minor risk association; these issues have a low probability of occurring or may have a minimal impact.
  • Informational issues pose no immediate risk, but inform the project team of opportunities for gas optimizations and following smart contract security best practices.