Volt Inu

Smart Contract Audit Report

Audit Summary

Volt Inu Audit Report Volt Inu is a new ERC-20 token on Ethereum that is an automatic liquidity providing protocol that pays out static rewards to holders.

For this audit, we reviewed the project team's VOLT contract at 0x7db5af2B9624e1b3B4Bb69D6DeBd9aD1016A58Ac on the Ethereum Mainnet.

Audit Findings

Please ensure trust in the team prior to investing as they have substantial control in the ecosystem.
Date: April 6th, 2022.
Updated: April 11th, 2022 to reflect the contract's newly deployed mainnet address.

Finding #1 - VOLT - Informational (Resolved)

Description: There are three instances in the swapAndLiquify() function where multiplication is performed on the result of a division. Division can lead to integer truncation, therefore dividing and subsequently multiplying can cause results to lose precision and become less accurate.
uint256 convertQuota = contractTokenBalance.div(4).mul(3);
...
uint256 marketingshare = newBalance.div(9).mul(4);
...
uint256 treasshare = afterMarketBalance.div(5).mul(4);
Recommendation: We recommend modifying these calculations to perform all multiplication before division.
Resolution: The team has implemented the above recommendation.

Finding #2 - VOLT - Informational (Partially Resolved)

Description: Upon deployment, the maximum transaction amount is set to 69 trillion (100% of the total supply). As a result, The upliftTxAmount function serves no real purpose as it sets the maximum transaction amount to 69 trillion.
uint256 public _maxTxAmount = 69000000000000 * 10**9;
...
function upliftTxAmount() external onlyOwner() {
	_maxTxAmount = 69000000000000 * 10**9;
}
Recommendation: The maximum transaction amount and the above function should either be removed from the contract or the maximum transaction amount value should be modified to fit the project team's intended functionality upon deployment.
Resolution: The team has removed the upliftTxAmount() function. The _maxTxAmount still exists in the contract but is redundant because it is set to 100% of the total supply and cannot be modified.

Finding #3 - VOLT - Informational (Resolved)

Description: Several functions are declared public, but are never called internally.
name, symbol, decimals, totalSupply, transfer, allowance, approve, transferFrom, increaseAllowance, decreaseAllowance, isExcludedFromReward, totalFees, deliver, reflectionFromToken, excludeFromReward, excludeFromFee, includeInFee, setMarketingWallet, setDevWallet, setBurningAddress, claimTokens, getBotWalletStatus, setMigrationWallet, setSwapAndLiquifyEnabled, isExcludedFromFee
Recommendation: These functions should be declared external for additional gas savings on each call.
Resolution: The team has declared the above functions external.

Finding #4 - VOLT - Informational (Resolved)

Description: Several state variables can never be modified, but are not declared constant.
_lockTime, _previousOwner, _decimals, _name, _symbol _tTotal, botscantrade
Recommendation: These state variables should be declared constant for additional gas savings on each call.
Resolution: The team has declared the above state variables constant.

Finding #5 - VOLT - Informational

Description: Although the SafeMath library is utilized, the contract is implemented with Solidity v0.8.x which has built-in overflow checks.
Recommendation: SafeMath could be safely removed to reduce contract size and deployment costs.

Contract Overview

  • The total supply of the token is set to 69 trillion $VOLT [69,000,000,000,000].
  • No mint or burn functions exist, though the circulating supply can be decreased by sending tokens to the 0x..dead address.
  • At the time of writing this report, there are 2,322 total token holders.
  • 65.81% of the total supply belongs to the EverMigrate contract. This contract was out of scope for the purpose of this audit.
  • The next five holders own a cumulative 6.11% of the total supply.

  • Trading must be enabled by the owner before all transfers can take place on the platform. Only the owner and the team's Migrator address can participate in transfers when trading is disabled.
  • Once trading is enabled, it can never be disabled.
  • Blacklisted accounts are prohibited from transferring tokens.
  • There is a 1% Tax fee and a 12% Liquidity fee on all transfers where neither the sender nor the recipient is excluded from fees.
  • The tokens collected through the Tax fee are removed from the circulating supply; This serves as a frictionless fee redistribution that automatically benefits all token holders at the time of each transaction.
  • The Liquidity fee charged during transfers is stored in the contract address. A portion of the tokens are swapped for ETH for the purpose of funding Uniswap liquidity when the following conditions are met:
    • The automatic liquidity add functionality is enabled by the team.
    • The threshold number of tokens (determined by the owner) in the contract address has been reached.
    • The contract is not currently performing an automatic liquidity add.
    • The caller is not initiating a buy transaction via Uniswap.
  • Liquidity-adds are automatically performed by selling the tokens collected as fees, pairing the received ETH with the token, and adding it as liquidity to the ETH pair.
  • The LP tokens received through this process are sent to the owner. We recommend that the team lock these newly acquired LP tokens.
  • Another portion of the tokens in the contract are swapped for ETH and split between the team's Marketing wallet and Treasury wallet.
  • The remaining portion of the tokens in the contract are sent to the Burn address set by the team.
  • The contract utilizes the SafeMath library to protect against overflows/underflows.
  • The contract complies with the ERC-20 token standard.
Ownership Controls:
  • The owner can exclude and include accounts from transfer fees and reward distribution.
  • The owner can enable/disable automatic liquidity adds at any time.
  • The owner can update the threshold number of tokens that triggers an automatic liquidity add to any value greater than 69 million at any time.
  • The owner can add/remove accounts from the transfer blacklist at any time.
  • The owner can airdrop any number of tokens to any address at any time. The team must ensure the maximum number of addresses that can be involved in a single airdrop is no more than 350 to prevent this loop from hitting the block gas limit.
  • The owner can withdraw any ETH or tokens from the contract at any time.
  • The owner can update the team's Marketing wallet, Dev wallet, Migrator address, and Burn address at any time.

External Threat Results

Vulnerability CategoryNotesResult
Arbitrary Storage WriteN/APASS
Arbitrary JumpN/APASS
Centralization of Control
  • The LP tokens generated through automatic liquidity adds are sent to the owner.
  • The owner can blacklist accounts from transferring tokens.
  • The owner can withdraw any $VOLT tokens from the contract at any time.
WARNING
Compiler IssuesN/APASS
Delegate Call to Untrusted ContractN/APASS
Dependence on Predictable VariablesN/APASS
Ether/Token TheftN/APASS
Flash LoansN/APASS
Front RunningN/APASS
Improper EventsN/APASS
Improper Authorization SchemeN/APASS
Integer Over/UnderflowN/APASS
Logical IssuesN/APASS
Oracle IssuesN/APASS
Outdated Compiler VersionN/APASS
Race ConditionsN/APASS
ReentrancyN/APASS
Signature IssuesN/APASS
Unbounded LoopsN/APASS
Unused CodeN/APASS
Overall Contract Safety PASS

Inheritance Chart

Smart Contract Audit - Inheritance

Function Graph

Smart Contract Audit - Graph

Functions Overview


 ($) = payable function
 # = non-constant function
 
 Int = Internal
 Ext = External
 Pub = Public

 + [Int] IERC20 
    - [Ext] totalSupply
    - [Ext] balanceOf
    - [Ext] transfer #
    - [Ext] allowance
    - [Ext] approve #
    - [Ext] transferFrom #

 + [Lib] SafeMath 
    - [Int] add
    - [Int] sub
    - [Int] sub
    - [Int] mul
    - [Int] div
    - [Int] div
    - [Int] mod
    - [Int] mod

 +  Context 
    - [Int] _msgSender
    - [Int] _msgData

 + [Lib] Address 
    - [Int] isContract
    - [Int] sendValue #
    - [Int] functionCall #
    - [Int] functionCall #
    - [Int] functionCallWithValue #
    - [Int] functionCallWithValue #
    - [Prv] _functionCallWithValue #

 +  Ownable (Context)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] owner
    - [Pub] renounceOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] transferOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Factory 
    - [Ext] feeTo
    - [Ext] feeToSetter
    - [Ext] getPair
    - [Ext] allPairs
    - [Ext] allPairsLength
    - [Ext] createPair #
    - [Ext] setFeeTo #
    - [Ext] setFeeToSetter #

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Pair 
    - [Ext] name
    - [Ext] symbol
    - [Ext] decimals
    - [Ext] totalSupply
    - [Ext] balanceOf
    - [Ext] allowance
    - [Ext] approve #
    - [Ext] transfer #
    - [Ext] transferFrom #
    - [Ext] DOMAIN_SEPARATOR
    - [Ext] PERMIT_TYPEHASH
    - [Ext] nonces
    - [Ext] permit #
    - [Ext] MINIMUM_LIQUIDITY
    - [Ext] factory
    - [Ext] token0
    - [Ext] token1
    - [Ext] getReserves
    - [Ext] price0CumulativeLast
    - [Ext] price1CumulativeLast
    - [Ext] kLast
    - [Ext] mint #
    - [Ext] burn #
    - [Ext] swap #
    - [Ext] skim #
    - [Ext] sync #
    - [Ext] initialize #

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Router01 
    - [Ext] factory
    - [Ext] WETH
    - [Ext] addLiquidity #
    - [Ext] addLiquidityETH ($)
    - [Ext] removeLiquidity #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETH #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityWithPermit #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETHWithPermit #
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForTokens #
    - [Ext] swapTokensForExactTokens #
    - [Ext] swapExactETHForTokens ($)
    - [Ext] swapTokensForExactETH #
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForETH #
    - [Ext] swapETHForExactTokens ($)
    - [Ext] quote
    - [Ext] getAmountOut
    - [Ext] getAmountIn
    - [Ext] getAmountsOut
    - [Ext] getAmountsIn

 + [Int] IUniswapV2Router02 (IUniswapV2Router01)
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
    - [Ext] removeLiquidityETHWithPermitSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
    - [Ext] swapExactETHForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens ($)
    - [Ext] swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #

 + [Int] IAirdrop 
    - [Ext] airdrop #

 +  VOLT (Context, IERC20, Ownable)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] name
    - [Pub] symbol
    - [Pub] decimals
    - [Pub] totalSupply
    - [Pub] balanceOf
    - [Pub] transfer #
    - [Pub] allowance
    - [Pub] approve #
    - [Pub] transferFrom #
    - [Pub] increaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] decreaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] isExcludedFromReward
    - [Pub] totalFees
    - [Ext] airdrop #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Int] airdropInternal #
    - [Ext] airdropArray #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] deliver #
    - [Pub] reflectionFromToken
    - [Pub] tokenFromReflection
    - [Pub] excludeFromReward #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] includeInReward #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Prv] _transferBothExcluded #
    - [Pub] excludeFromFee #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] includeInFee #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setMarketingWallet #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setDevWallet #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setBurningAddress #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] upliftTxAmount #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] setSwapThresholdAmount #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] claimTokens #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] claimOtherTokens #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] clearStuckBalance #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] addBotWallet #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] removeBotWallet #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] getBotWalletStatus
    - [Ext] allowtrading #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setMigrationWallet #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] setSwapAndLiquifyEnabled #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext]  ($)
    - [Prv] _reflectFee #
    - [Prv] _getValues
    - [Prv] _getTValues
    - [Prv] _getRValues
    - [Prv] _getRate
    - [Prv] _getCurrentSupply
    - [Prv] _takeLiquidity #
    - [Prv] calculateTaxFee
    - [Prv] calculateLiquidityFee
    - [Prv] removeAllFee #
    - [Prv] restoreAllFee #
    - [Pub] isExcludedFromFee
    - [Prv] _approve #
    - [Prv] _transfer #
    - [Prv] swapAndLiquify #
       - modifiers: lockTheSwap
    - [Prv] swapTokensForEth #
    - [Prv] addLiquidity #
    - [Prv] _tokenTransfer #
    - [Prv] _transferStandard #
    - [Prv] _transferToExcluded #
    - [Prv] _transferFromExcluded #

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What is a Solidity Audit?

Typically, a smart contract audit is a comprehensive review process designed to discover logical errors, security vulnerabilities, and optimization opportunities within code. A Solidity Audit takes this a step further by verifying economic logic to ensure the stability of smart contracts and highlighting privileged functionality to create a report that is easy to understand for developers and community members alike.

How Do I Interpret the Findings?

Each of our Findings will be labeled with a Severity level. We always recommend the team resolve High, Medium, and Low severity findings prior to deploying the code to the mainnet. Here is a breakdown on what each Severity level means for the project:

  • High severity indicates that the issue puts a large number of users' funds at risk and has a high probability of exploitation, or the smart contract contains serious logical issues which can prevent the code from operating as intended.
  • Medium severity issues are those which place at least some users' funds at risk and has a medium to high probability of exploitation.
  • Low severity issues have a relatively minor risk association; these issues have a low probability of occurring or may have a minimal impact.
  • Informational issues pose no immediate risk, but inform the project team of opportunities for gas optimizations and following smart contract security best practices.