rTax3 - Audit Report

Summary

rTax3 Finance Audit Report rTax3 is a new token brought to you by Defi Disciple Labs. The token charges every transaction with a 3% fee and instantly redistributes it among all its token holders. This creates a mechanism that allows for token holders to directly receive rewards without having to spend money on staking transactions. rTax3 is similar to Reflect Finance in many ways, but this token's main difference is the low total supply and its 3% fee.

Please Note: Tokens will be unlocked after the token sale. All over copies are scams.

Overview of contract:
  • rTax3 is a fork of Reflect Finance. Users who hold tokens will automatically receive the fees from the 3% transaction tax set in the contract.
  • 100% of the fees are distributed to token holders.
  • Total Supply is capped at 100000 rTax3 with 60000 allocated to presale. No minting and burning functions are present in the code.

  • Owners have the ability to exclude and include users from reflections. Changing relection permissions for users could affect the reward distribution.
  • Contract utilizes SafeMath libraries to prevent overflows.

Audit Findings Summary
  • No security issues were detected in the analysis.
  • Functions to RenounceOwnership and TransferOwnership are present within the smart contract, developers can waive the authority creating a more trustless system.
  • Date: December 19th, 2020


Date: December 19th, 2020
Vulnerability Category Notes Result
Arbitrary Storage Write N/A PASS
Arbitrary Jump N/A PASS
Delegate Call to Untrusted Contract N/A PASS
Dependence on Predictable Variables N/A PASS
Deprecated Opcodes N/A PASS
Ether Thief N/A PASS
Exceptions N/A PASS
External Calls N/A PASS
Flash Loans N/A PASS
Integer Over/Underflow N/A PASS
Multiple Sends N/A PASS
Oracles N/A PASS
Suicide N/A PASS
State Change External Calls N/A Pass
Unchecked Retval N/A PASS
User Supplied Assertion N/A PASS
Critical Solidity Compiler N/A PASS
Overall Contract Safety   PASS

ERC20 Token Graph

Multi-file Token

												
($) = payable function
 # = non-constant function
  

 +  Context 
    - [Int] _msgSender
    - [Int] _msgData

 + [Int] IERC20 
    - [Ext] totalSupply
    - [Ext] balanceOf
    - [Ext] transfer #
    - [Ext] allowance
    - [Ext] approve #
    - [Ext] transferFrom #

 +  Ownable (Context)
    - [Int]  #
    - [Pub] owner
    - [Pub] renounceOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] transferOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner

 + [Lib] Address 
    - [Int] isContract
    - [Int] sendValue #
    - [Int] functionCall #
    - [Int] functionCall #
    - [Int] functionCallWithValue #
    - [Int] functionCallWithValue #
    - [Prv] _functionCallWithValue #

 + [Lib] SafeMath 
    - [Int] add
    - [Int] sub
    - [Int] sub
    - [Int] mul
    - [Int] div
    - [Int] div
    - [Int] mod
    - [Int] mod

 +  rTAX3 (Context, IERC20, Ownable)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] name
    - [Pub] symbol
    - [Pub] decimals
    - [Pub] totalSupply
    - [Pub] balanceOf
    - [Pub] transfer #
    - [Pub] allowance
    - [Pub] approve #
    - [Pub] transferFrom #
    - [Pub] increaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] decreaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] isExcluded
    - [Pub] totalFees
    - [Pub] reflect #
    - [Pub] reflectionFromToken
    - [Pub] tokenFromReflection
    - [Ext] excludeAccount #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Ext] includeAccount #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Prv] _approve #
    - [Prv] _transfer #
    - [Prv] _transferStandard #
    - [Prv] _transferToExcluded #
    - [Prv] _transferFromExcluded #
    - [Prv] _transferBothExcluded #
    - [Prv] _reflectFee #
    - [Prv] _getValues
    - [Prv] _getTValues
    - [Prv] _getRValues
    - [Prv] _getRate
    - [Prv] _getCurrentSupply
							

Click here to download the source code as a .sol file.


// The following code is from flattening this file: rTax.sol
// File: contracts\REFLECT.sol

/*
 * Copyright 2020 reflect.finance. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
 */

pragma solidity ^0.6.2;
// The following code is from flattening this import statement in: rTax.sol
// import './Context.sol';
// The following code is from flattening this file: /mnt/c/pr0/rTax/Context.sol
/**
 *Submitted for verification at Etherscan.io on 2020-11-19
*/

// File: openzeppelin-solidity\contracts\GSN\Context.sol

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

/*
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with GSN meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address payable) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes memory) {
        this; // silence state mutability warning without generating bytecode - see https://github.com/ethereum/solidity/issues/2691
        return msg.data;
    }
}

// The following code is from flattening this import statement in: rTax.sol
// import './IERC20.sol';
// The following code is from flattening this file: /mnt/c/pr0/rTax/IERC20.sol
// File: openzeppelin-solidity\contracts\token\ERC20\IERC20.sol

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `recipient`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `sender` to `recipient` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

// The following code is from flattening this import statement in: rTax.sol
// import './Ownable.sol';
// The following code is from flattening this file: /mnt/c/pr0/rTax/Ownable.sol
// File: openzeppelin-solidity\contracts\access\Ownable.sol

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

// Skipping this already resolved import statement found in /mnt/c/pr0/rTax/Ownable.sol 
// import './Context.sol';

/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * By default, the owner account will be the one that deploys the contract. This
 * can later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
contract Ownable is Context {
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    constructor () internal {
        address msgSender = _msgSender();
        _owner = msgSender;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(address(0), msgSender);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        require(_owner == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
        emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, address(0));
        _owner = address(0);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
        emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, newOwner);
        _owner = newOwner;
    }
}
// The following code is from flattening this import statement in: rTax.sol
// import './Address.sol';
// The following code is from flattening this file: /mnt/c/pr0/rTax/Address.sol
// File: openzeppelin-solidity\contracts\utils\Address.sol

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.6.2;

/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type
 */
library Address {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     *
     * Among others, `isContract` will return false for the following
     * types of addresses:
     *
     *  - an externally-owned account
     *  - a contract in construction
     *  - an address where a contract will be created
     *  - an address where a contract lived, but was destroyed
     * ====
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // According to EIP-1052, 0x0 is the value returned for not-yet created accounts
        // and 0xc5d2460186f7233c927e7db2dcc703c0e500b653ca82273b7bfad8045d85a470 is returned
        // for accounts without code, i.e. `keccak256('')`
        bytes32 codehash;
        bytes32 accountHash = 0xc5d2460186f7233c927e7db2dcc703c0e500b653ca82273b7bfad8045d85a470;
        // solhint-disable-next-line no-inline-assembly
        assembly { codehash := extcodehash(account) }
        return (codehash != accountHash && codehash != 0x0);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Replacement for Solidity's `transfer`: sends `amount` wei to
     * `recipient`, forwarding all available gas and reverting on errors.
     *
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1884[EIP1884] increases the gas cost
     * of certain opcodes, possibly making contracts go over the 2300 gas limit
     * imposed by `transfer`, making them unable to receive funds via
     * `transfer`. {sendValue} removes this limitation.
     *
     * https://diligence.consensys.net/posts/2019/09/stop-using-soliditys-transfer-now/[Learn more].
     *
     * IMPORTANT: because control is transferred to `recipient`, care must be
     * taken to not create reentrancy vulnerabilities. Consider using
     * {ReentrancyGuard} or the
     * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.11/security-considerations.html#use-the-checks-effects-interactions-pattern[checks-effects-interactions pattern].
     */
    function sendValue(address payable recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(address(this).balance >= amount, "Address: insufficient balance");

        // solhint-disable-next-line avoid-low-level-calls, avoid-call-value
        (bool success, ) = recipient.call{ value: amount }("");
        require(success, "Address: unable to send value, recipient may have reverted");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Performs a Solidity function call using a low level `call`. A
     * plain`call` is an unsafe replacement for a function call: use this
     * function instead.
     *
     * If `target` reverts with a revert reason, it is bubbled up by this
     * function (like regular Solidity function calls).
     *
     * Returns the raw returned data. To convert to the expected return value,
     * use https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/units-and-global-variables.html?highlight=abi.decode#abi-encoding-and-decoding-functions[`abi.decode`].
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `target` must be a contract.
     * - calling `target` with `data` must not revert.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
      return functionCall(target, data, "Address: low-level call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`], but with
     * `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data, string memory errorMessage) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return _functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but also transferring `value` wei to `target`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the calling contract must have an ETH balance of at least `value`.
     * - the called Solidity function must be `payable`.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(address target, bytes memory data, uint256 value) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, "Address: low-level call with value failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCallWithValue-address-bytes-uint256-}[`functionCallWithValue`], but
     * with `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(address target, bytes memory data, uint256 value, string memory errorMessage) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(address(this).balance >= value, "Address: insufficient balance for call");
        return _functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, errorMessage);
    }

    function _functionCallWithValue(address target, bytes memory data, uint256 weiValue, string memory errorMessage) private returns (bytes memory) {
        require(isContract(target), "Address: call to non-contract");

        // solhint-disable-next-line avoid-low-level-calls
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.call{ value: weiValue }(data);
        if (success) {
            return returndata;
        } else {
            // Look for revert reason and bubble it up if present
            if (returndata.length > 0) {
                // The easiest way to bubble the revert reason is using memory via assembly

                // solhint-disable-next-line no-inline-assembly
                assembly {
                    let returndata_size := mload(returndata)
                    revert(add(32, returndata), returndata_size)
                }
            } else {
                revert(errorMessage);
            }
        }
    }
}

// The following code is from flattening this import statement in: rTax.sol
// import './SafeMath.sol';
// The following code is from flattening this file: /mnt/c/pr0/rTax/SafeMath.sol
// File: openzeppelin-solidity\contracts\math\SafeMath.sol

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations with added overflow
 * checks.
 *
 * Arithmetic operations in Solidity wrap on overflow. This can easily result
 * in bugs, because programmers usually assume that an overflow raises an
 * error, which is the standard behavior in high level programming languages.
 * `SafeMath` restores this intuition by reverting the transaction when an
 * operation overflows.
 *
 * Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
 * class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
 */
library SafeMath {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Addition cannot overflow.
     */
    function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 c = a + b;
        require(c >= a, "SafeMath: addition overflow");

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow (when the result is negative).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Subtraction cannot overflow.
     */
    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return sub(a, b, "SafeMath: subtraction overflow");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on
     * overflow (when the result is negative).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Subtraction cannot overflow.
     */
    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b <= a, errorMessage);
        uint256 c = a - b;

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Multiplication cannot overflow.
     */
    function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
        // benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
        // See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/pull/522
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        uint256 c = a * b;
        require(c / a == b, "SafeMath: multiplication overflow");

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts on
     * division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
     * `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
     * uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return div(a, b, "SafeMath: division by zero");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts with custom message on
     * division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
     * `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
     * uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b > 0, errorMessage);
        uint256 c = a / b;
        // assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
     * Reverts when dividing by zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return mod(a, b, "SafeMath: modulo by zero");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
     * Reverts with custom message when dividing by zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b != 0, errorMessage);
        return a % b;
    }
}


contract rTAX3 is Context, IERC20, Ownable {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using Address for address;

    mapping (address => uint256) private _rOwned;
    mapping (address => uint256) private _tOwned;
    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) private _allowances;

    mapping (address => bool) private _isExcluded;
    address[] private _excluded;
    
    string private _name = 'rtax3.finance';
    string private _symbol = 'rTAX3';
    uint8 private _decimals = 9;
   
    uint256 private constant MAX = ~uint256(0);
    uint256 private constant _tTotal = 100 * 10**3 * 10**9;
    uint256 private _rTotal = (MAX - (MAX % _tTotal));
    uint256 private _tFeeTotal;

    

    constructor () public {
        _rOwned[_msgSender()] = _rTotal;
        emit Transfer(address(0), _msgSender(), _tTotal);
    }

    function name() public view returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    function symbol() public view returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    function decimals() public view returns (uint8) {
        return _decimals;
    }

    function totalSupply() public view override returns (uint256) {
        return _tTotal;
    }

    function balanceOf(address account) public view override returns (uint256) {
        if (_isExcluded[account]) return _tOwned[account];
        return tokenFromReflection(_rOwned[account]);
    }

    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public override returns (bool) {
        _transfer(_msgSender(), recipient, amount);
        return true;
    }

    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view override returns (uint256) {
        return _allowances[owner][spender];
    }

    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) public override returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, amount);
        return true;
    }

    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) public override returns (bool) {
        _transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
        _approve(sender, _msgSender(), _allowances[sender][_msgSender()].sub(amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds allowance"));
        return true;
    }

    function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, _allowances[_msgSender()][spender].add(addedValue));
        return true;
    }

    function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, _allowances[_msgSender()][spender].sub(subtractedValue, "ERC20: decreased allowance below zero"));
        return true;
    }

    function isExcluded(address account) public view returns (bool) {
        return _isExcluded[account];
    }

    function totalFees() public view returns (uint256) {
        return _tFeeTotal;
    }

    function reflect(uint256 tAmount) public {
        address sender = _msgSender();
        require(!_isExcluded[sender], "Excluded addresses cannot call this function");
        (uint256 rAmount,,,,) = _getValues(tAmount);
        _rOwned[sender] = _rOwned[sender].sub(rAmount);
        _rTotal = _rTotal.sub(rAmount);
        _tFeeTotal = _tFeeTotal.add(tAmount);
    }

    function reflectionFromToken(uint256 tAmount, bool deductTransferFee) public view returns(uint256) {
        require(tAmount <= _tTotal, "Amount must be less than supply");
        if (!deductTransferFee) {
            (uint256 rAmount,,,,) = _getValues(tAmount);
            return rAmount;
        } else {
            (,uint256 rTransferAmount,,,) = _getValues(tAmount);
            return rTransferAmount;
        }
    }

    function tokenFromReflection(uint256 rAmount) public view returns(uint256) {
        require(rAmount <= _rTotal, "Amount must be less than total reflections");
        uint256 currentRate =  _getRate();
        return rAmount.div(currentRate);
    }

    function excludeAccount(address account) external onlyOwner() {
        require(!_isExcluded[account], "Account is already excluded");
        if(_rOwned[account] > 0) {
            _tOwned[account] = tokenFromReflection(_rOwned[account]);
        }
        _isExcluded[account] = true;
        _excluded.push(account);
    }

    function includeAccount(address account) external onlyOwner() {
        require(_isExcluded[account], "Account is already excluded");
        for (uint256 i = 0; i < _excluded.length; i++) {
            if (_excluded[i] == account) {
                _excluded[i] = _excluded[_excluded.length - 1];
                _tOwned[account] = 0;
                _isExcluded[account] = false;
                _excluded.pop();
                break;
            }
        }
    }

    function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 amount) private {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
        require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");

        _allowances[owner][spender] = amount;
        emit Approval(owner, spender, amount);
    }

    function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) private {
        require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");
        require(amount > 0, "Transfer amount must be greater than zero");
        if (_isExcluded[sender] && !_isExcluded[recipient]) {
            _transferFromExcluded(sender, recipient, amount);
        } else if (!_isExcluded[sender] && _isExcluded[recipient]) {
            _transferToExcluded(sender, recipient, amount);
        } else if (!_isExcluded[sender] && !_isExcluded[recipient]) {
            _transferStandard(sender, recipient, amount);
        } else if (_isExcluded[sender] && _isExcluded[recipient]) {
            _transferBothExcluded(sender, recipient, amount);
        } else {
            _transferStandard(sender, recipient, amount);
        }
    }

    function _transferStandard(address sender, address recipient, uint256 tAmount) private {
        (uint256 rAmount, uint256 rTransferAmount, uint256 rFee, uint256 tTransferAmount, uint256 tFee) = _getValues(tAmount);
        _rOwned[sender] = _rOwned[sender].sub(rAmount);
        _rOwned[recipient] = _rOwned[recipient].add(rTransferAmount);       
        _reflectFee(rFee, tFee);
        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, tTransferAmount);
    }

    function _transferToExcluded(address sender, address recipient, uint256 tAmount) private {
        (uint256 rAmount, uint256 rTransferAmount, uint256 rFee, uint256 tTransferAmount, uint256 tFee) = _getValues(tAmount);
        _rOwned[sender] = _rOwned[sender].sub(rAmount);
        _tOwned[recipient] = _tOwned[recipient].add(tTransferAmount);
        _rOwned[recipient] = _rOwned[recipient].add(rTransferAmount);           
        _reflectFee(rFee, tFee);
        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, tTransferAmount);
    }

    function _transferFromExcluded(address sender, address recipient, uint256 tAmount) private {
        (uint256 rAmount, uint256 rTransferAmount, uint256 rFee, uint256 tTransferAmount, uint256 tFee) = _getValues(tAmount);
        _tOwned[sender] = _tOwned[sender].sub(tAmount);
        _rOwned[sender] = _rOwned[sender].sub(rAmount);
        _rOwned[recipient] = _rOwned[recipient].add(rTransferAmount);   
        _reflectFee(rFee, tFee);
        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, tTransferAmount);
    }

    function _transferBothExcluded(address sender, address recipient, uint256 tAmount) private {
        (uint256 rAmount, uint256 rTransferAmount, uint256 rFee, uint256 tTransferAmount, uint256 tFee) = _getValues(tAmount);
        _tOwned[sender] = _tOwned[sender].sub(tAmount);
        _rOwned[sender] = _rOwned[sender].sub(rAmount);
        _tOwned[recipient] = _tOwned[recipient].add(tTransferAmount);
        _rOwned[recipient] = _rOwned[recipient].add(rTransferAmount);        
        _reflectFee(rFee, tFee);
        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, tTransferAmount);
    }

    function _reflectFee(uint256 rFee, uint256 tFee) private {
        _rTotal = _rTotal.sub(rFee);
        _tFeeTotal = _tFeeTotal.add(tFee);
    }

    function _getValues(uint256 tAmount) private view returns (uint256, uint256, uint256, uint256, uint256) {
        (uint256 tTransferAmount, uint256 tFee) = _getTValues(tAmount);
        uint256 currentRate =  _getRate();
        (uint256 rAmount, uint256 rTransferAmount, uint256 rFee) = _getRValues(tAmount, tFee, currentRate);
        return (rAmount, rTransferAmount, rFee, tTransferAmount, tFee);
    }

    function _getTValues(uint256 tAmount) private pure returns (uint256, uint256) {
        uint256 tFee = tAmount.div(100).mul(3);
        uint256 tTransferAmount = tAmount.sub(tFee);
        return (tTransferAmount, tFee);
    }

    function _getRValues(uint256 tAmount, uint256 tFee, uint256 currentRate) private pure returns (uint256, uint256, uint256) {
        uint256 rAmount = tAmount.mul(currentRate);
        uint256 rFee = tFee.mul(currentRate);
        uint256 rTransferAmount = rAmount.sub(rFee);
        return (rAmount, rTransferAmount, rFee);
    }

    function _getRate() private view returns(uint256) {
        (uint256 rSupply, uint256 tSupply) = _getCurrentSupply();
        return rSupply.div(tSupply);
    }

    function _getCurrentSupply() private view returns(uint256, uint256) {
        uint256 rSupply = _rTotal;
        uint256 tSupply = _tTotal;      
        for (uint256 i = 0; i < _excluded.length; i++) {
            if (_rOwned[_excluded[i]] > rSupply || _tOwned[_excluded[i]] > tSupply) return (_rTotal, _tTotal);
            rSupply = rSupply.sub(_rOwned[_excluded[i]]);
            tSupply = tSupply.sub(_tOwned[_excluded[i]]);
        }
        if (rSupply < _rTotal.div(_tTotal)) return (_rTotal, _tTotal);
        return (rSupply, tSupply);
    }
}